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focus in the new agendas was on the depraved 'foreigner' who preyed on the innocence of children in developing countries.; As one media commentator summarized, "The child prostitute has become a potent symbol of touristic excess: the ultimate commodification of humanity in its most vulnerable and innocent form "(Black, 1995: 13)

Local demand

As campaigns to prevent child prostitution and exploitation matured, several agencies, including ECPAT began to recognize that not all problems could be attributed to debauched outside influences. In Olongapo City in the Philippines much of the market for very young prostitutes had been connected to US servicemen, but further research concluded that 50% of customers of the estimated 1000 child prostitutes were locals. Research into the Thai sex industry estimated that Western tourists mainly patronized women above age 18 and that 90% of the demand for 'underage girls' came from locals. NGOs began to develop more sophisticated analyses of what had previous been considered a pedophile problem. The lives of street children emerged as a theme especially in Latin American countries such as Brazil where estimates climbed into 100,000 s for the number of children living on the streets or insecure homes. Local demand for young sexual partners of either gender was viewed as the problem for these youngsters rather than necessarily the demands of foreign tourists. Other forms of societal violence and the actions of corrupt officials, the military and the police were also listed as problems by NGOs and journalists. The abduction and murder of street kids in Guatemala, Colombia and Brazil were cited in the media as key examples of what was to become an international scandal. One study into the lives of 143 street children in Guatemala City carried out by Casa Alianza found that commercial sex was a reality for almost all of these young people as a form of survival (Harris 1996). The consequences of life on the street and sexual activity with numerous partners were severe-100 percent of the children reported being sexual abused and 93 percent had previously contracted sexually transmitted diseases including genital herpes, gonorrhea, and scabies. All of the children reported drug use featuring the sniffing of glue and solvents as the drug of choice.

Trafficking in children

Most recently I believe that the hot topic for NGO intervention, media focus and international action lias shifted away from the actions of pedophiles and child prostitution per se to the notion of'trafficking in children '. This trend is best represented by the 1997 name change of ECPAT from End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism to End Child Prostitution,

Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes, Trafficking in persons is an ill-defined concept at best but may be cons...

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