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Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China
     

 

Redesigning the Dragon

Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

Duncan Marsh [email protected]

Anna Pawul [email protected]

Dmitri Maslitchenko [email protected]

V550, Government Finance in the Transitional Economies

21 November, 1996


In 1978, the People's Republic of China (PRC) embarked on the enormous undertaking of opening its doors to the outside world. Until this point in time, the PRC had relied on a centralized economic system much like that of the former Soviet Union [1]. However, the PRC's situation differed with the former Soviet Union in three substantial ways [2] 1) although reforms followed the Cultural Revolution (which did exact its toll on the Chinese economy) there was an absence of severe macroeconomic crises when reforms were begun 2) agricultural infrastructure was good, although the incentives were poor and 3) China had a strong presence of overseas Chinese and Hong Kong that influence its economic development and over the years supplied capital and human resources. p> The industrialization strategy adopted by the PRC has been characterized by gradualism and experimentation. Its focus has been to introduce market forces, reduce mandatory planning, decentralize, and open the economy to foreign investment and trade [3]. This strategy had three main stages. The first (1979-1983) established four "Special Economic Zones" (areas awarded special freedoms to conduct business relatively free of the authorities intervention) in Guangdong and Fujian provinces, the second (1984-1987) added 14 port cities creating the "Economic Development Zones ", and finally the third stage (1988-present) which opened most of the country to foreign trade and created "tariff free zones" [4]. In the rural areas, land reforms spearheaded further reforms and also the establishment of Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs). These enterprises were able to capitalize on the abundant cheap labor in rural areas and to operate without the burden of providing social spending. They also provided a training ground for the learning of market skills and concepts. Today, production of manufactured goods by rural and township enterprise is estimated to account for more than 40% of the GDP.

In many respects, China's process of economic reform has been highly successful.

Since its inception, the average GDP growth has been a world-leading 9.3% year, the poverty rate has declined 60%, and 170 million Chinese living in absolute poverty have seen their standard of living raised above the minimum poverty level. Export growth was 7.8% in 1993, 29% in 1994 and 34.7% in 1995-га. [5] Government measures to control inflation, which had threatened to overheat the economy in the early 1990s, seem to have taken effect: inflation was under 15% in 1995-га. (See Tables 1 and 2.) p> Table 1...

     
 
     
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